Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, et al. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, based on November 9 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 20. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD).
American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2020. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2020.
Kenfield SA, Batista JL, Jahn JL, Downer MK, Van Blarigan EL, Sesso HD, et al. Development and application of a lifestyle score for prevention of lethal prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016;108:djv329.
Bell K. Remaking the self: trauma, teachable moments, and the biopolitics of cancer survivorship. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2012;36:584–600.
Ganz PA. A teachable moment for oncologists: cancer survivors, 10 million strong and growing! J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:5458–60.
Karvinen K, Bruner B, Truant T. The teachable moment after cancer diagnosis: perceptions from oncology nurses. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2015;42:602–9.
Langlais CS, Graff RE, Van Blarigan EL, Palmer NR, Washington SL 3rd, Chan JM, et al. Post-diagnostic dietary and lifestyle factors and prostate cancer recurrence, progression, and mortality. Curr Oncol Rep. 2021;23:37.
AU – World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research PY – 2018 ST – Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: a Global Perspective. Continuous Update Project Expert Report 2018 TI – Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: a Global Perspective. Continuous Update Project Expert Report 2018 UR -2020. http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/Y2.
Rock CL, Doyle C, Demark-Wahnefried W, Meyerhardt J, Courneya KS, Schwartz AL, et al. Nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:243–74.
Shams-White MM, Romaguera D, Mitrou P, Reedy J, Bender A, Brockton NT. Further guidance in implementing the standardized 2018 world cancer research fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) score. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2020;29:889–94.
Shams-White MM, Brockton NT, Mitrou P, Romaguera D, Brown S, Bender A, et al. Operationalizing the 2018 world cancer research fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations: a standardized scoring system. Nutrients. 2019;11:1572.
McCullough ML, Patel AV, Kushi LH, Patel R, Willett WC, Doyle C, et al. Following cancer prevention guidelines reduces risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2011;20:1089–97.
Van Blarigan EL, Fuchs CS, Niedzwiecki D, Zhang S, Saltz LB, Mayer RJ, et al. Association of survival with adherence to the American cancer society nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors after colon cancer diagnosis: the CALGB 89803/alliance trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018;4:783–90.
Chasan-Taber S, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Spiegelman D, Colditz GA, Giovannucci E, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire for male health professionals. Epidemiology. 1996;7:81–6.
Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Litin LB, et al. Reproducibility and validity of food intake measurements from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93:790–6.
Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Litin LB, Willett WC. Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135:1114–26.
Szymanski KM, Wheeler DC, Mucci LA. Fish consumption and prostate cancer risk: a review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1223–33.
Rohrmann S, Platz EA, Kavanaugh CJ, Thuita L, Hoffman SC, Helzlsouer KJ. Meat and dairy consumption and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in a US cohort study. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18:41–50.
Kirsh VA, Mayne ST, Peters U, Chatterjee N, Leitzmann MF, Dixon LB, et al. A prospective study of lycopene and tomato product intake and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2006;15:92–8.
Rohrmann S, Linseisen J, Allen N, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Johnsen NF, Tjønneland A, et al. Smoking and the risk of prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Br J Cancer. 2013;108:708–14.
Patel AV, Rodriguez C, Jacobs EJ, Solomon L, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Recreational physical activity and risk of prostate cancer in a large cohort of US men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2005;14:275–9.
Wright ME, Chang SC, Schatzkin A, Albanes D, Kipnis V, Mouw T, et al. Prospective study of adiposity and weight change in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer. 2007;109:675–84.
Gong Z, Agalliu I, Lin DW, Stanford JL, Kristal AR. Cigarette smoking and prostate cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis in middle-aged men. Cancer Causes Control. 2008;19:25–31.
Oefelein MG, Resnick MI. Association of tobacco use with hormone refractory disease and survival of patients with prostate cancer. J Urol. 2004;171:2281–4.
Pantarotto J, Malone S, Dahrouge S, Gallant V, Eapen L. Smoking is associated with worse outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by radical radiotherapy. BJU Int. 2007;99:564–9.
Moreira DM, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Kane CJ, Amling CL, Cooperberg MR, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy: results from the search database. Cancer. 2014;120:197–204.
Pickles T, Liu M, Berthelet E, Kim-Sing C, Kwan W, Tyldesley S. The effect of smoking on outcome following external radiation for localized prostate cancer. J Urol. 2004;171:1543–6.
Joshu CE, Mondul AM, Meinhold CL, Humphreys EB, Han M, Walsh PC, et al. Cigarette smoking and prostate cancer recurrence after prostatectomy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:835–8.
Oh JJ, Hong SK, Jeong CW, Byun SS, Lee SE. Significance of smoking status regarding outcomes after radical prostatectomy. Int Urol Nephrol. 2012;44:119–24.
Ngo TC, Lee JJ, Brooks JD, Nolley R, Ferrari M, Presti JC Jr. Smoking and adverse outcomes at radical prostatectomy. Urol Oncol. 2013;31:749–54.
Rieken M, Shariat SF, Kluth LA, Fajkovic H, Rink M, Karakiewicz PI, et al. Association of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in patients treated with radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2015;68:949–56.
Steinberger E, Kollmeier M, McBride S, Novak C, Pei X, Zelefsky MJ. Cigarette smoking during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality and treatment-related toxicity. BJU Int. 2015;116:596–603.
Negrón R, Vásquez A, Nieves M, Guerrios L, Irizarry-Ramírez M. Body mass index affects the diagnosis and progression of prostate cancer in hispanics. Ethn Dis. 2010;20:S1–168-72.
Keto CJ, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Presti JC, Kane CJ, Amling CL, et al. Obesity is associated with castration-resistant disease and metastasis in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy after radical prostatectomy: results from the search database. BJU Int. 2012;110:492–8.
Bhindi B, Kulkarni GS, Finelli A, Alibhai SM, Hamilton RJ, Toi A, et al. Obesity is associated with risk of progression for low-risk prostate cancers managed expectantly. Eur Urol. 2014;66:841–8.
Efstathiou JA, Chen MH, Renshaw AA, Loffredo MJ, D’Amico AV. Influence of body mass index on prostate-specific antigen failure after androgen suppression and radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Cancer. 2007;109:1493–8.
Spangler E, Zeigler-Johnson CM, Coomes M, Malkowicz SB, Wein A, Rebbeck TR. Association of obesity with tumor characteristics and treatment failure of prostate cancer in African-American and European American men. J Urol. 2007;178:1939–44.
Stroup SP, Cullen J, Auge BK, L’Esperance JO, Kang SK. Effect of obesity on prostate-specific antigen recurrence after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer as measured by the 2006 radiation therapy oncology group-American society for therapeutic radiation and oncology (RTOG-ASTRO) phoenix consensus definition. Cancer. 2007;110:1003–9.
Hisasue S, Yanase M, Shindo T, Iwaki H, Fukuta F, Nishida S, et al. Influence of body mass index and total testosterone level on biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008;38:129–33.
Magheli A, Rais-Bahrami S, Trock BJ, Humphreys EB, Partin AW, Han M, et al. Impact of body mass index on biochemical recurrence rates after radical prostatectomy: An analysis utilizing propensity score matching. Urology. 2008;72:1246–51.
Freedland SJ, Isaacs WB, Mangold LA, Yiu SK, Grubb KA, Partin AW, et al. Stronger association between obesity and biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy among men treated in the last 10 years. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:2883–8.
Freedland SJ, Grubb KA, Yiu SK, Humphreys EB, Nielsen ME, Mangold LA, et al. Obesity and risk of biochemical progression following radical prostatectomy at a tertiary care referral center. J Urol. 2005;174:919–22.
Freedland SJ, Sun L, Kane CJ, Presti JC Jr, Terris MK, Amling CL, et al. Obesity and oncological outcome after radical prostatectomy: impact of prostate-specific antigen-based prostate cancer screening: Results from the shared equal access regional cancer hospital and duke prostate center databases. BJU Int. 2008;102:969–74.
Strom SS, Wang X, Pettaway CA, Logothetis CJ, Yamamura Y, Do KA, et al. Obesity, weight gain, and risk of biochemical failure among prostate cancer patients following prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:6889–94.
Strom SS, Kamat AM, Gruschkus SK, Gu Y, Wen S, Cheung MR, et al. Influence of obesity on biochemical and clinical failure after external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Cancer. 2006;107:631–9.
Kane CJ, Im R, Amling CL, Presti JC Jr, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, et al. Outcomes after radical prostatectomy among men who are candidates for active surveillance: results from the search database. Urology. 2010;76:695–700.
Ho T, Gerber L, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Presti JC, Kane CJ, et al. Obesity, prostate-specific antigen nadir, and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: biology or technique? Results from the search database. Eur Urol. 2012;62:910–6.
Wang LS, Murphy CT, Ruth K, Zaorsky NG, Smaldone MC, Sobczak ML, et al. Impact of obesity on outcomes after definitive dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Cancer. 2015;121:3010–7.
Langlais CS, Cowan JE, Neuhaus J, Kenfield SA, Van Blarigan EL, Broering JM, et al. Obesity at diagnosis and prostate cancer prognosis and recurrence risk following primary treatment by radical prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2019;28:1917–25.
Bonn SE, Sjölander A, Lagerros YT, Wiklund F, Stattin P, Holmberg E, et al. Physical activity and survival among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2015;24:57–64.
Wang Y, Jacobs EJ, Gapstur SM, Maliniak ML, Gansler T, McCullough ML, et al. Recreational physical activity in relation to prostate cancer-specific mortality among men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2017;72:931–9.
Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Chan JM. Physical activity and survival after prostate cancer diagnosis in the health professionals follow-up study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:726–32.
Friedenreich CM, Wang Q, Neilson HK, Kopciuk KA, McGregor SE, Courneya KS. Physical activity and survival after prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2016;70:576–85.
Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Paciorek A, Carroll PR, Chan JM. Physical activity after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression: data from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor. Cancer Res. 2011;71:3889–95.
Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R, Fradet Y, Moore L. Dietary fat and prostate cancer survival. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10:245–51.
Epstein MM, Kasperzyk JL, Mucci LA, Giovannucci E, Price A, Wolk A, et al. Dietary fatty acid intake and prostate cancer survival in örebro county, Sweden. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176:240–52.
Van Blarigan EL, Kenfield SA, Yang M, Sesso HD, Ma J, Stampfer MJ, et al. Fat intake after prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality in the physicians’ health study. Cancer Causes Control. 2015;26:1117–26.
Pettersson A, Kasperzyk JL, Kenfield SA, Richman EL, Chan JM, Willett WC, et al. Milk and dairy consumption among men with prostate cancer and risk of metastases and prostate cancer death. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2012;21:428–36.
Tat D, Kenfield SA, Cowan JE, Broering JM, Carroll PR, Van Blarigan EL, et al. Milk and other dairy foods in relation to prostate cancer recurrence: Data from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor (capsure™). Prostate. 2018;78:32–9.
Farris MS, Courneya KS, Kopciuk KA, McGregor SE, Friedenreich CM. Post-diagnosis alcohol intake and prostate cancer survival: a population-based cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2018;143:253–62.
Downer MK, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Wilson KM, Dickerman BA, Giovannucci EL, et al. Alcohol intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the health professionals follow-up study. J Clin Oncol. 2019;37:1499–511.
Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Chan JM. Egg, red meat, and poultry intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen-era: Incidence and survival. Cancer Prev Res. 2011;4:2110–21.
Yang M, Kenfield SA, Van Blarigan EL, Batista JL, Sesso HD, Ma J, et al. Dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality. Cancer Prev Res. 2015;8:545–51.
Recommendation: Always say “no” to tobacco. Accessed December 21, 2021. https://www.aicr.org/cancer-prevention/recommendations/always-say-no-to-tobacco/.
Tobacco and cancer. Accessed December 21, 2021. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/tobacco-and-cancer.html.
Smoking and cancer risk. Accessed December 19, 2021. https://www.wcrf-uk.org/preventing-cancer/what-can-increase-your-risk-of-cancer/smoking-and-cancer-risk/.
Vidal AC, Oyekunle T, Howard LE, De Hoedt AM, Kane CJ, Terris MK, et al. Obesity, race, and long-term prostate cancer outcomes. Cancer. 2020;126:3733–41.
Khan S, Cai J, Nielsen ME, Troester MA, Mohler JL, Fontham ETH, et al. The association of diabetes and obesity with prostate cancer progression: Hcap-nc. Prostate. 2017;77:878–87.
Riviere P, Kumar A, Luterstein E, Vitzthum LK, Nalawade V, Sarkar RR, et al. Tobacco smoking and death from prostate cancer in us veterans. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2020;23:252–9.
Vidal AC, Howard LE, Sun SX, Cooperberg MR, Kane CJ, Aronson WJ, et al. Obesity and prostate cancer-specific mortality after radical prostatectomy: results from the shared equal access regional cancer hospital (search) database. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2017;20:72–8.
Freedland SJ, Branche BL, Howard LE, Hamilton RJ, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, et al. Obesity, risk of biochemical recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen doubling time after radical prostatectomy: results from the search database. BJU Int. 2019;124:69–75.
Jackson MD, Tulloch-Reid MK, McCaw-Binns AM, Aiken W, Ferguson TS, Bennett NR, et al. Central adiposity at diagnosis may reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality in African-Caribbean men with prostate cancer: 10-year follow-up of participants in a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2020;31:651–62.
Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Chute CG, Litin LB, Willett WC. Validity of self-reported waist and hip circumferences in men and women. Epidemiology. 1990;1:466–73.